Gazzaniga has a population of 5,000, is in the mid-Seriana Valley 19 kilometres from Bergamo at an altitude of 386 metres and covers 14.65 square kilometres. The two hamlets of Rova and Orezzo are annexed to it, the latter in a dominant position 676 metres above sea level; the main conurbations are Masserini, S. Rocco, Rova and Ela.
The name Gagianiga comes from medieval Latin word gazzo, meaning a wooded area, Gageniga in the Bergamascan dialect. Prehistoric remains were found in the Corna Altezza cave above Rova at an altitude of 650 metres near the border with Aviatico: they consisted of graves of the Copper Age, ursus, marmot and fox. At the height of the medieval period Gazzaniga was part of Honio, a kind of federation comprising municipal areas of the mid-Seriana Valley formed for various purposes including economics and political. The confederation came to an end on 1263 on the instructions of the Chancellors of Bergamo.
Orders and statutes reached Gazzaniga, together with those of Rova and Fiorano, and were rediscovered by Antonio Tiraboschi. They were a copy of the original code that had been lost and was called Missalettus, dating back to 1260. The transcription is from 1748: the code is composed of 12 sheets containing 78 orders. The original is kept at the Civic Library of Bergamo section 5, 1/7).
The municipality’s coat of arms shows a magpie (gazza in Italian), which was derived from the name of the village.