This is a municipal area with a population of 1,402 in the Province of Bergamo. It is about 504 metres above sea level on the high plain that dominates a long tract of the left bank of the River Serio and is around 23 kilometres from the capital. It is believed to have the oldest centre in Val Gandino and in medieval times it was an important location, when it was administered by Gandino, from which it broke free in 1524. An important testimony to the medieval era is the complex called by the castle, which dates back to the 14th century; today it accommodates the municipal offices and its tower has been declared a national monument. The village’s parish church was built in the 15th century and has an Appiani altar piece showing the patron saint. Added to Casnigo in 1928, it acquired its autonomy again in 1959. During the first half of the 20th century, lignite was mined on its territory and used as a combustible during and after the Great War.
Cazzano stretches from the slopes of Mount Farno, where there is the residential area, to the Leffe antenna location. Once, the village’s land extended as far as the foot of Mount Bue, bordering with lower Cene Valle Rossa. That bulge was established in the early 17th century when, after the plague, it was decided to reorganise the borders of the Val Gandino municipalities, giving Cazzano access to water not only in the Romna stream beneath the residential area, but also the stream Doppia in Valle Rossa. This was because the Romna was already being used by the first factories in Gandino, which produced the esteemed coarse Bergamascan cloth.